Abstract Background Breast cancer is currently the most common neoplasm diagnosed in women globally.
Correspondence to: Chinmay Kumar Panda. Email: ckpanda.
There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that human papillomavirus HPV infection may play a key role in invasiveness of breast cancer. The aim of this study was pastile de vierme pentru noapte determine the presence of HPV in patients with breast cancer and its possible association with cancer progression. Methods Breast specimens were collected from 72 patients with breast cancer and 31 healthy controls.
The presence of HPV was investigated by polymerase chain reaction PCR and genotyping was performed for positive cases. HPV type 18 was the most prevalent virus genotype in patients.
All P-values were less than 0.
Conclusion The present study demonstrated that HPV infection may implicate in the development of some types of breast cancer. Peer Review reports Background Breast cancer is one of the most common cause of cancer deaths among women in both developing and developed countries.
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Moreover, mortality of this cancer is much more than both colorectal and lung cancers [ 123 ]. A localizarea viermei în corpul uman of these RFs could be infectious agents which play a key role as carcinogens or promoters [ 456 ].
Human papillomavirus infection - HPV - What is HPV \u0026 How do you get it?
Recent studies have identified that some viruses, especially human papilloma virus HPVare among the RFs for the development of breast cancer, suggesting a strong association between HPV and breast cancer [ 78910 ]. Many researches have been done on association between human papilloma virus HPV and cervical cancer and this issue is well accepted that HPV has the strong causal link with this cancer [ 910 ].
For the first time inthe association between breast cancer and HPV was reported by Lonardo et al. It has been shown that at least a few types of HPV such as 6, 11, 15, 16, 18, and 33 are related to breast cancer [ 1314 ].
DOI: In addition, evidence has now established their role in non-melanoma skin cancers, head and neck cancer HNCand the development of other anogenital malignancies.
E6 and E7 proteins, the oncoproteins, mainly act as stimulators of host cell proliferation [ 16 ]. E7 protein interacts with retinoblastoma RB resulting in E2F release, a transcription factor which promotes cell proliferation.
E7 up-regulates S-phase genes, cyclin A, and cyclin E but,contrarily, inhibits the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors such as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor WAF 1known as p21, and Kinesin-like protein KIP 1known as p27 [ 1618 ].
Association of HPV infection with BC
These genes are known for their tumor suppressor products, which prevent tumor development by repairing DNA damages. Other factors such as inflammation have been shown to be involved in breast cancer progression.
Minus Related Pages HPV, or human papillomavirus, is a common virus that can cause cancers later in life. You can protect your child from these cancers with HPV vaccine at age 11—12 years. Nearly everyone will get HPV at some point in their lives. More than 42 million Americans are currently infected with HPV types that cause disease.
Chronic inflammation, which can be caused by persistent virus infections, is mediated by different cytokines and reactive oxygen nitrogen species RONS. This human papiloma virus dijagnoza situation could suppress the antitumor immunity, promote metastasis development, and contribute to tumor progression [ 2324 human papiloma virus dijagnoza, 25 ]. Moreover, inflammation could enhance tumor progression which results in tissue remodeling, induction of the growth factors and angiogenesis [ 6 ].
IL-6 is one of the inflammatory cytokines involved in tumor growth by evoking anti-apoptotic response and stimulating tumor development [ 27 ]. TGF-β is a multifunctional cytokine involved in regulating many processes including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis of cancer cells.
This cytokine seems to be the most extensively studied factor in breast cancer molecular studies [ 24 ]. During the inflammation, increased levels of IL-1 could induce breast cancer progression via angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and inhibition of apoptosis [ 2829 ].
Tumor necrosis factor α TNF-αis another inflammatory cytokine expressed in high amounts and involved in breast cancer [ 24 ]. NF-κB nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells is a protein which plays a critical role in regulating the immune response against infections.
This feature seems to be the main linker between tumor development and inflammation [ 30 ]. Several studies have shown that NF-κB has a direct association with tumor initiation and cancer progression [ 31 ]. High levels of RONS in cancer tissue can significantly promote tumor development and metastasis [ 3233 ].
Poruči analize onlajn
Therefore, investigating the role of infection and inflammation in tumor initiation and development has been attracted intensive scientific interests in the fields of oncology and virology. In the present case-control study, we aimed to determine the presence of HPV in breast cancer tissues and to evaluate the possible association between HPV infection and breast cancer development.
Inclusion criteria were defined as; women with approved histopathological biopsy evidence s of breast cancer, accessibility of fresh samples, native patients of Shahrekord and Tehran cities. No limitations in age, type of breast cancer, and tumor size or stage were considered for the patients.
In addition, 31 normal breast tissue samples, obtained from breast reduction surgeries with normal histopathology results, were also examined as healthy controls from both hospitals.
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All the controls were healthy women with no history of estrogen therapies, oral contraceptive consumption, cervical cancer, and smoking. For all the cases a carful breast examination was performed by an experienced surgeon. All the histopathology results were re-examined by two well experienced pathologists double checking by M. Mogani and M. Khosravi to certainly confirm the diagnosis.
The stage of cancer, based on TNM system, was provided by consulting an expert cancer team consisting of an oncologist, a radiologist and a cancer surgeon.
Five paraffin-embedded pathologically proved cervical cancer samples human papiloma virus dijagnoza used as positive controls. All the participants signed a copy of consent form freely after verbal explanation of the aims and methods of this study according to their level of knowledge. For this test, distilled water and paraffin sections without tissue were used as negative controls for PCR and DNA extraction, respectively.
Moreover, isolated genotypes 6, 11, 15, 16, 18, and 33 of cervical cancer samples, in CIN3 and cervical cancer model, were used as positive controls for amplification. The serial dilutions of the full-length HPV genome was prepared to provide the standard control for copy number of E2 and E6 genes [ 36 ].
Statistical methods Normality test was performed using Kolmogorov—Smirnov test for continuous variables. The two-independent samples t-test Mann-Whitney non-parametric test was conducted to compare the central tendency e. Correlation analysis was also carried outby Eta-squared coefficient. To identify the linear dependencies between two sets of the variables, the Canonical Correlation Analysis CCA was applied.
Generalized linear model logistic regression was used to recognize the association between the presence of HPV and breast cancer.
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False discovery rate was corrected by Benjamini-Hochberg approach for multiple comparisons. Any P-value less than 0.
Results In this study, 72 female breast cancer cases, including 9 The average age of the patients was The odds of breast cancer incidence in the HPV positive group was 4. Table 2 Physical status of HPV genome in cases and controls.